中超联赛官网 caught in the 英国脱欧 debate

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新闻分析:随着竞选活动的宣传达到英国之前的高潮’s vote on 我 membership on Thursday, 中超联赛官网 has found itself used and abused by both sides in the so-called “Brexit”(英国出口)辩论。中超联赛官网人本人两次拒绝加入欧盟,但研究人员称他们可能不是’t any richer for it.

The 欧洲an Union was praised for promoting "国家之间的博爱," one of the key criteria for the 诺贝尔和平奖 according to the will of its founder, Alfred Nobel. PHOTO: 欧洲an Commission

中超联赛官网 never joined the 我 but has had to abide by its rules and pay huge annual fees to retain access to 我 markets. Now Britain may leave the 我 , pointing to how Norway has managed outside the union, but most now agree that 中超联赛官网’s deal with the 我 is no model for Britain. PHOTO: 欧洲an Commission

中超联赛官网 has been held up for months as an argument both for staying in the 我 and for leaving it. The pro-Brexit camp that wants to leave the 我  points to 中超联赛官网 as a sterling example of being able to prosper outside the 我 . The anti-Brexit camp points to the expensive terms of 中超联赛官网’欧盟以外国家的立场,这就是不加入欧盟的陷阱。

那’因为所谓的 EØSavtale, the agreement 中超联赛官网 secured with the 我 back in 1994 to retain access to 我 markets. It requires 中超联赛官网 to pay huge sums of money to the 我 , currently NOK 3.3 billion (EUR 391 million) every year until 2021, and to go along with nearly all 我 rules and regulations without having any vote on them.

伦敦经济学院的一位教授告诉报纸 Aftenposten 今年春天初,英国脱欧的支持者领导了“Vote Leave” campaign became more cautious about using 中超联赛官网 as an argument in favour of exiting the 我 . Pointing to how well things have gone for 中超联赛官网 was more popular before the 投票假 advocates really studied the (EØS) agreement, said professor Simon Hix, and discovered what it involved.

之后,“Vote Leave”竞选澄清说,它不支持“中超联赛官网替代” for Great Britain. “Norway’与欧盟的交易是可怕的,实际上与我们的交易一样糟糕,”英国国会议员道格拉斯·卡斯威尔(Douglas Carswell)宣称。的“Vote Leave” side then began pointing to Canada and Switzerland instead, with proponents for an exit remaining confident that Britain could cut its own deal with the 我 . They also believe they can get a market agreement with the 我 that would be better than 中超联赛官网’s.

“They realized that 中超联赛官网 has to accept nearly all 我 directives without having any influence over them,” Hix told Aftenposten. “令人震惊。”

中超联赛官网 as ‘Europe’s Puerto Rico’
希望留在欧盟的另一方也抓住了中超联赛官网’与欧盟达成的协议。英国工业联合会(CIB),雇主’与中超联赛官网的NHO类似的组织指出,中超联赛官网由于拒绝加入欧盟,必须仍然接受“around 75 percent” of the 我 ’的法律,而他们却没有任何发言权’重组。中超联赛官网的自由贸易协定也远少于欧盟,并且是按人均向欧盟支付最多的10个国家之一,尽管中超联赛官网’s not a member.

“It’s a strange situation 中超联赛官网 has landed in,” Hix told Aftenposten. He said he tends to view 中超联赛官网 as “Europe’s Puerto Rico,” comparing 中超联赛官网 to the small island state in the Caribbean that must accept US federal law and free flow of commerce without being able to vote in US 选举. “But 中超联赛官网 has to pay as well, so the situation is in fact worse for 中超联赛官网,” Hix said, even though 中超联赛官网 has the 油 wealth to pay the 我 ’s price.

同时,一些英国研究人员认为,如果中超联赛官网在1994年加入欧盟,就此问题进行最后一次全民公投,中超联赛官网将更加富有。在去年发表的一篇文章中,伦敦布鲁内尔大学的研究人员说,他们发现了“相关经济优势”成为中超联赛官网从未享受过的欧盟正式成员。研究人员声称,如果加入欧盟,中超联赛官网的生产率在1995年至2000年之间将提高6%。“而且没有理由相信今天的差距已经消失,”布鲁内尔大学的一位研究人员瑙鲁·坎波斯(Nauro Campos)告诉 Aftenposten. He noted that development in 中超联赛官网 has been “solid” despite its lack of 我 membership, but believes it could have been even better if 中超联赛官网 was part of the 我 . Being outside the 我 , for example, may have discouraged more foreign investment.

“It’想要保留您的主权是完全合法的,” Campos said, “but it’每个人都意识到它有其价格很重要。”

欧盟和英国的国旗可能不再并排飘扬。照片:Europabevegelse

欧盟和英国的国旗可能不再并排飘扬。照片:Europabevegelse

CIB乃至整个国家的主要英国机构的研究人员’英国财政部也认为,英国退出欧盟比成为欧盟成员国要昂贵得多。现在英国必须与欧盟达成的任何协议都将要求在没有代表的情况下征税,即使英国设法达成比中超联赛官网模式更好的协议。英国财政部估计,如果英国与欧盟达成中超联赛官网式协议而不是欧盟正式成员,那么15年后英国的国民生产总值将减少4.3%之多。 CIB认为,英国需要在布鲁塞尔全面发挥影响力,并需要全面进入市场。

中超联赛官网’s anti-EU lobby hopes Britain will leave the 我 and team up again with 中超联赛官网 and other non-members like Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein through the 欧洲an Free Trade Association (EFTA). 中超联赛官网’s 欧盟 (No to the 我 ) movement also thinks that if Britain needs to negotiate a new agreement with the 我 , it may give 中超联赛官网 a chance to do the same. It even notes that since Britain alone is an important trading partner for 中超联赛官网, its exit would reduce the 我 ’s importance for 中超联赛官网 as a market and supplier.

使馆被淹
中超联赛官网’s embassy in London, meanwhile, has been deluged in recent months with requests for information about 中超联赛官网’的立场及其与欧盟的协议。使馆给了“Vote Leave” lobby cause for pause when it could document that 中超联赛官网 has taken in more labour migrants than Britain on a per-capita basis from other countries in the 欧洲an Economic Area. Many British have latched on to 英国脱欧 in the hope it would curb 移民.

“I think we’ve seen references to 中超联赛官网 in nearly every 英国脱欧 debate,” 中超联赛官网’驻英国大使莫娜·朱尔(Mona Juul)告诉《周刊》 磁网. “在大使馆,我们试图在不介入辩论本身的情况下,尽力为事实信息做出最大贡献。”

On Thursday night, both proponents and opponents of Britain leaving the 我 will gather to follow referendum results as they stream in. 中超联赛官网’s pro-EU lobby, Europabevegelsen,与其他几个组织共同主持选举守夜活动,以监督选举结果并亲自辩论该问题。对于那些惧怕克朗的人来说,与英国做生意的公司,尤其是居住在中超联赛官网并有资格作为欧盟一部分的各种社会福利的英国公民,受到的威胁很大。如果英国离开欧盟,所有这些都需要直接与中超联赛官网重新谈判。周四晚上也是中超联赛官网的仲夏夜,通常在篝火旁或在峡湾的船上庆祝。今年,许多中超联赛官网人将与整个欧洲的其他人一道,紧紧跟随伦敦的消息。

newsinenglish.no/妮娜·伯格伦德(Nina Berglund)