美军受到热烈欢迎

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新闻分析:’s a reason why US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter and several other top American 防御 officials have been trooping to 挪威 since early September. Keen to send troops to a loyal 北约 ally that shares a border with 俄国, they got what they wanted without having to win the hearts and minds of Norwegians in general.

9月初,阿什顿·卡特(Ashton Carter)(左)成为11年来第一位访问挪威的美国国防部长。他's shown here speaking with fighter jet pilots at the Norwegian air station ini Bodø. Norwegian Defense Minister Ine Eriksen Søreide is shown with bowed head in the background.照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

9月初,阿什顿·卡特(Ashton Carter)(左)成为11年来第一位访问挪威的美国国防部长。他’此处显示的是在博德(Bodø)挪威航空站与战斗机飞行员讲话的。挪威国防部长Ine EriksenSøreide在挪威的支持下处于中心地位’包括国防部长Haakon Bruun-Hanssen在内的最高军事黄铜(右二)。照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

在数周的媒体报道之后,美国希望在Værnes(挪威中部特隆赫姆附近)建立大约300名士兵的基地,政府最终确认了自年初以来一直在酝酿的计划。星期一晚上,政府“oriented”挪威议会’扩大了的外交事务和国防委员会,据报道,明年年初将有300多名美军(330)到达。

保守党的挪威国防​​部长埃内森·索雷德(Ine EriksenSøreide)曾致电美国“我们最重要的盟友”美国海军陆战队将无数次与该国各地的挪威部队及其他盟国进行训练。他们可能都使用会存储在Værnes的美国军事装备,’挪威将从美国国防承包商洛克希德·马丁公司那里接收新的F35战斗机,该飞机离用于建立新F35战斗机基地的加油站太远了。

挪威国防部长Ine EriksenSøreide多次称美国为"我们最重要的盟友" and said she and US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter discussed the security situation in the North, the bilateral relation between 挪威 and the US and the fight against terror group IS when Carter visited September 8-9. Here they're shown taking a selfie while out on a tour along 挪威'北海岸。照片:Forsvarsdepartementet / Asgeir Spange Brekke

挪威国防部长Ine EriksenSøreide多次称美国为“我们最重要的盟友”她说,当卡特于9月8日至9日访问时,她和美国国防部长阿什顿·卡特(Ashton Carter)讨论了北部的安全局势,挪威与美国之间的双边关系以及与恐怖组织IS的战斗。她当时注意到他们’d also discussed “对美国和挪威都意义重大的主题”但她对指定美国部队存在计划保持沉默。在这里,她和卡特在挪威巡回演出中自拍’北海岸。照片:Forsvarsdepartementet / Asgeir Spange Brekke

索雷德(Søreide)在证明在挪威土壤上建立美国军事基地的观点成立时,运用了丰富的政治措辞和对挪威法律的解释。“Værnes won’成为美国基地”索雷德反抗特隆赫姆报纸 Adresseavisen 在星期三。她说,由于美军轮流任职,“we’不要谈论美国在挪威的常设基地或在挪威建立美国基地。”她更喜欢将整个项目视为“扩展和深化”挪威与美国之间长期的军事合作,但有明确的限制。她强调“cooperation”将在一年中进行评估。

其他几位军事专家和评论员对这个项目的看法则截然不同,该项目是在美国人的要求下启动并即将实施的。甚至有人称它为“political bluff.” 新闻paper 达格萨维森, for example, editorialized on Wednesday that it can represent a violation of a declaration made in 1949 that placement of allied forces on Norwegian soil would not be allowed in peacetime. The declaration was aimed at placating the then-Soviet Union after 挪威 joined 北约. There also have been heated debates over the years on whether earlier storage of allies’军事装备还违反了针对非挪威部队基地的宣布。

美国国防部长's visit was quickly followed by a visit from the Secretary of the Navy, Ray Mabus. He also had meetings with Søreide and her state secretary Øystein Bø, who also has been busy defending how US troops will soon be stationed near Trondheim.照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

美国国防部长’s visit was quickly followed on September 29 by a visit from the US Secretary of the Navy, Ray Mabus (center). He also had meetings with Søreide and her state secretary Øystein Bø (left), who also has been busy this week defending how US troops will soon be stationed near Trondheim.照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

Now 挪威 and the US are engaging in both, with 达格萨维森 致电Søreide’批准美国在挪威军事存在的要求的理由“危险地接近政治虚张声势。”在挪威驻扎美军是什么“entirely new,”写纸,然后“在紧张的政治局势中向我们的邻国俄罗斯发出了错误的信号。我们不’认为挪威在此方面服务良好。”

奥斯陆和平研究所PRIO的负责人克里斯蒂安·伯格·哈普维肯(Kristian Berg Harpviken)告诉挪威广播公司(NRK),Værnes项目代表“a fundamental change”在挪威的国防政策中。“This is quite 清楚地 an answer to the worsening security situation and worsening relations with 俄国,” Harpviken said.

挪威外交政策局NUPI的StåleUlriksen也质疑索雷德’对新产品的创造性解释“concrete 合作”与美国军队在挪威的土地上。她热情地将其称为“unique opportunity”让挪威军队在挪威的条件下与美军一起训练。这将加强挪威军队’s ability “与我们最亲密的盟友一起作战。”

On October 12, the Secretary of the US Air Force, Deborah Lee James, also landed in Oslo, to meet with State Secretary Øystein Bø and Defense Minister Ine Eriksen Søreide. The visits all seemed to confirm US Defense Secretary Ashton'卡特在9月份声称"挪威与美国之间的关系从未如此紧密。"照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

10月12日,美国空军部长Deborah Lee James也降落在奥斯陆,会见了国务卿ØysteinBø和国防部长Ine EriksenSøreide。美国高级军事官员的访问似乎都证实了新的安全紧张局势和美国国防部长阿什顿’卡特在9月份声称“挪威与美国之间的关系从未如此紧密。”照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

Ulriksen描述了Søreide赢得了什么’t call a “base” as a hybrid between having a permanent 军事 基础 and an agreement on regular 军事 exercises. “无论您要使用哪个术语,都与政治而不是法律有关,”Ulriksen告诉新闻社NTB。

他指出,但是,有“no doubt”Søreide,挪威国防机构及其在美国的同行“构成了美军在挪威扩大规模和常规存在的基础。即使士兵被调动,大部分(美国)设备仍将留在挪威。”与Harpviken一样,Ulriksen也相信该项目“clearly”表示挪威基本政策发生了变化。

到目前为止,俄罗斯的回应是“astonishment”在Værnes的美军计划。俄罗斯驻奥斯陆大使馆新闻专员马克西姆·古洛夫(Maxim Gurov)告诉特隆赫姆报纸 Adresseavisen 那挪威’s 基础 policy from 1949 survived through the entire Cold War and has been an “advantage” for 挪威 as a partner compared to other 北约 countries. Now that “advantage” may disappear.

Several political parties (the Liberals, the Center Party, the Socialist Left and even 政府's Progress Party) have voice concerns about the presence of US Marines at Værnes. 劳动 supports it, though, so Eriksen can be in good humour like she was during Ashton Carter's visit in September.照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

挪威的几个政党(自由党,中央党,社会主义左派甚至政府)’进步党)对美国海军陆战队在Værnes的存在表示担忧。不过,工党支持它,因此埃里克森可以像在阿什顿·卡特(Ashton Carter)时期那样幽默自在’s visit in September.照片:Forsvarsdepartementet

由于工党已经支持了挪威领导的项目’作为保守派的少数派联合政府,尽管包括一个政府在内的几个较小政党的反对和担忧,但维纳斯的美军存在仍将获得议会的多数支持。’自己的支持党,自由党。挪威芬马克的代表’作为与俄罗斯接壤的最北端的县,也表达了对Værnes行动是挑衅的担忧。索雷德(Søreide)指出,这个问题“由政府决定,但在这种情况下,我们当然会以正常方式咨询议会。”

由于没有这样的“bases”即使在冷战时期, Adresseavisen 问索雷德是否’s now even colder. “No, not in any way,”索雷德回答。她继续坚持认为新“concrete 合作” is merely an extension of long-standing joint-training programs and she stressed that allied forces are often in 挪威 for training exercises. This week alone, she said, 200 troops from the US Marine Corps are training with Norwegian forces in Indre Troms (Northern 挪威) for the fourth week in a row, while three Dutch naval vessels are in the Sognefjord taking part in another Norwegian exercise. She reminded that 北约 itself earlier had permanent command centers at both Kolsås (west of Oslo) and in Stavanger.

北约’同时,秘书长延斯·斯托尔滕贝格(Jens Stoltenberg)本周表示,俄罗斯都在发挥自己的军事力量“并试图分裂欧洲” into various political and economic camps. Stoltenberg, a former Norwegian prime minister from the 劳动 Party, claimed 俄国 has not succeeded, though, and that 北约 is more unified than it has been for a long time. His remarks came as 北约 members’ 防御 ministers, including Søreide of 挪威 and Carter of the US, gathered in Brussels for meetings to follow up on the 北约 summit held in Warsaw in June. Søreide told news bureau NTB that it would “直接在俄罗斯’s interests”试图在从制裁俄罗斯到军事资源等问题上分裂欧盟。

虽然她轻描淡写了明年在任何时候都拥有330名美国海军陆战队士兵的重要性,但她在书面辩护中提到了另一个令人发醒的事实,该辩护发表于2007年。 达格萨维森 在星期三。“在危机中,挪威依赖我们的盟军,” Søreide wrote. “我们最亲密的盟友在挪威训练这一事实对挪威的安全是有利的。”

newsinenglish.no/妮娜·伯格伦德(Nina Berglund)